Leonard Felder: The Ten Challenges (The Second Challenge) Review

The Talmadic Second Commandment, or First Commandment in the Philonic or Augustinian traditions, is phrased "Thou shalt have no other gods before me" (Exodus 20:3). Felder notes that this is usually, and incorrectly, interpreted as an edict against building and worshipping idols.

The New Seminary Buddhism Review

1. What are the Four Passing Sights that Siddhartha saw and what did they mean to him?

According to the traditional biography, Prince Siddh?rtha Gautama was shielded from religious teaching and knowledge of human suffering by his father King ?uddhodana, who desired his son to develop expertise on secular and royal affairs. According to the prediction of the shramana (ascetic) Asita, he too would become a ascetic if he came into contact with the existential conditions of life. Siddhartha thus spent 29 years as a prince in Kapilavastu [1], a region of the ancient Shakya kingdom, near the border of contemporary India and Nepal, in relative luxury.

Euthyphro

The Sacred Text archive lists Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, and Phaedo by Plato as separate dialogues, which they are, they are of the same narrative to be included as study in sequence, as has been done for some time (e.g., the Penguin edition of The Last Days of Socrates). Expressed in dialogue form, they provide some of the most insightful moments in philosophy on the issues of religious piety, virtue and the role of conscience, justice and the notion of a social contract, and the nature of the soul and mortality. "The use of God in the singular is a reflection of the interest of Greek philosophy to discern generic essences from particular cases e.g., Athena, Zeus, Hermes etc are Gods - what is their common "God-essence"?

The New Seminary Hinduism Assignment

The "four desires" of Hinduism is normally interpreted as the puru??rtha [1] (purusha; god, human., artha, object and objective), the objectives of human. These are normally considered within four types; Dharma, Artha, K?ma, and Mok?ha. Dharma suggests devotion to the natural and moral laws (rta) which has conceptual similarity to the Chinese notion of dao, or the European logos. In comparison Artha suggests properity, in the sense of both material well-being as well as reputation and social standing.

Review: To Be Or To Become

'To Be or To Become: The Emzine Dialogue' by Dr. Marc van der Erve is "a new and unifying theory of our world that goes beyond present-day science and religion." The author's academic background is in applied physics (bachelor's degree) and sociology (doctorate), with employment in various managerial roles in organisations such as Xerox, DEC and KPMG and more recently in leadership consulting.

The Soul of the Machines: From Artificial Intelligence to Artificial Consciousness

It is not uncommon for advocates to argue that the production of an sufficiently large expert rules based system will provide the sufficient and necessary requirements for 'strong' artificial intelligence. In recent days, attempts in this direction were made not by inorganic computational capacity, but rather with the development of a neural network using DNA.

Global Warming Mitigation: Spirit, Systems and Science

Nature is a gift of Providence and, as a result, one which we all have an equal right to. But this also means responsibility, that we must pay for whatever damage that is done to nature, and those who are responsible should carry that cost. Where that cost is not applied in accordance to responsibility a social cost arises, and indeed, is encouraged.

A Vaccine for HIV - and Beyond

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a disease which has been the subject of much commentary by religious-minded people since its discovery in 1981, many of whom sought to blame those infected. This was primarily due the discovery of the disease among gay men and injecting drug users, especially through the irregular increase of cases of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and a previously-rare skin cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma. Tabloid media, displaying the usual sensitivity and accuracy, called this the "Gay Plague".

Becoming a Type 1 Civilization

The Kardashev Scale, created by Nikolai Kardashev in 1964, is a theory of advanced energy consumption. There are four types - and Earth isn't even one of them. We are currently below the scale because we can not yet make use of all available Earthly energy. The next few steps involve using an entire planet's energy, then expanding to other planets, then to galaxies, then the universe. There might be something beyond that, but let's not get too far into theory.

Cold Confusion

In 1903, the well-known member of the French Academy of Science, Prosper-René Blondlot, responsible for the first measurement of the speed of radio waves, announced a new form of radiation at the University of Nancy, whilst attempting to polarise X-rays. Excitement rose, and no less than 120 other scientists in 300 published articles also expressed the ability to detect this new radiation, which acquired the title "N-Rays"; notably there was a very disproportionate number of French scientists among the number. There was even debate over who discovered them first.

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